The Soviet BOR-4 Spaceplanes and their Legacy
B. Hendrickx (2007), JBIS, 60, 90-108Refcode
: BOR-4, Spiral, Buran, space shuttleAbstract:
Between 1982 and 1984 the Soviet Union launched four small recoverable lifting bodies designed to test heatshield materials for the Soviet space shuttle Buran. Called BOR-4, these vehicles were originally designed to be flown in support of the Spiral military spaceplane programme, but after the cancellation of that project were reoriented towards Buran. They were widely misinterpreted in the West as subscale versions of a military spaceplane and would later serve as the basis for several American spaceplane designs.
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